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C Programming

## Basics of File Handling

So far the operations using C program are done on a prompt / terminal which are not stored anywhere. But in software industry, most of the programs are written to store the information fetched from the program. One such way is to store the fetched information in a file. Different operations that can be performed on a file are:

1. Creation of a new file (fopen with attributes as “a” or “a+” or “w” or “w++”)
2. Opening an existing file (fopen)
3. Reading from file (fscanf or fgetc)
4. Writing to a file (fprintf or fputs)
5. Moving to a specific location in a file (fseek, rewind)
6. Closing a file (fclose)

The text in the brackets denotes the functions used for performing those operations.

OPENING or CREATING A FILE:
For opening a file, fopen function is used with the required access modes. Some of the commonly used file access modes are:

 “r” Searches file. If the file is opened successfully fopen( ) loads it into memory and sets up a pointer which points to the first character in it. If the file cannot be opened fopen( ) returns NULL. “w” Searches file. If the file exists, its contents are overwritten. If the file doesn’t exist, a new file is created. Returns NULL, if unable to open file. "a" Searches file. If the file is opened successfully fopen( ) loads it into memory and sets up a pointer that points to the last character in it. If the file doesn’t exist, a new file is created. Returns NULL, if unable to open file. "r+" Searches file. If is opened successfully fopen( ) loads it into memory and sets up a pointer which points to the first character in it. Returns NULL, if unable to open the file. "w+" Searches file. If the file exists, its contents are overwritten. If the file doesn’t exist a new file is created. Returns NULL, if unable to open file. "a+" Searches file. If the file is opened successfully fopen( ) loads it into memory and sets up a pointer which points to the last character in it. If the file doesn’t exist, a new file is created. Returns NULL, if unable to open file.

In the above table, if you want to perform operations on binary file, then you have to append 'b' at the last. For example, instead of “w” you have to use “wb”, insead of “a+” you have to use “a+b”. For performig the operations on file, a special pointer called File pointer is used which is decalared as

FILE *fp;
So, the file can be opened as
fp = fopen(“fileName.txt”, “w”)


The second parameter can be changed to contain all the attributes listed in the above table.

The file read operations can be perfomed using functions fscanf or fgets. Both the functions performd the same operations as that of printf and gets but with an additional parameter, the file pointer. So, it depends on you if you want to read the file line by line or character by character.

And the code snippet for reading a file is as:

FILE * fp;
fp = fopen(“fileName.txt”, “r”);
fscanf(fp, "%s %s %s %d", str1, str2, str3, &year);


WRITING TO A FILE:

The file write operations can be perfomed by the functions fprintf and fputs with similarities to read operations. The snippet for writing to a file is as :

FILE *fp ;
fp = fopen(“fileName.txt”, “w”);
fprintf(fp, "%s %s %s %d", "We", "are", "in", 2012);


CLOSING A FILE:
After every successful fie operations, you must always close a file. For closing a file, you have to use fclose function. The snippet for closing a file is given as :

FILE *fp ;
fp= fopen(“fileName.txt”, “w”);
---------- Some file Operations -------
fclose(fp)